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勤廉故事少年说: 麒派京剧首创者周信芳

  周信芳(1895.1——1975.3)京剧扮演艺术家,京剧“麒派”艺术开创人。身世艺人家庭,名流楚,字信芳,艺名麒麟童,客籍浙江宁波慈城。中华国民共和国建立后,周信芳被选为第一、二、三届天下国民代表大会代表,历任中国戏曲研讨院副院长、上海京剧院院长、中国戏剧家协会上海分会主席等职位。代表剧目有《徐策跑城》、《乌龙院》、《萧何月下追韩信》、《香妃》、《董小宛》等。

zhonggongmiaoxiaoxuedelishangqiantongchuang

baogaowoguochusedejingjubanyanyishujiazhouxinfangdegushi

  zhouxinfangbenjizainingbocicheng,1895niantadanshengyuyirenjiating,liusuigencongfuqinzhouweitangkejuhangzhou,qisuiqitoudengtai,yimingwei“qilingtong”,juehougaicheng“qilintong”。

  weilexuehaoshenshou,zhouxinfangduochubaishi,taxiangliushuangquanxuelaoshengxi,xiangpanliankuixuenianbaixi,youxiangzhanghefuqingjiaozuogongxi,weilefengshuobenshendebanyanjingli,tadoudanceyankaoshichabiexijiao,chuzhuyandexiaosheng、laoshengyiwai,tahaichuyanguowusheng、hualian、xiaochoudengjiaose。zaizhongmingshidezixichuanshouzhixia,zhouxinfangdebanyancainenghuodelejisudejinsheng。

  danshi,hefaqibanyanyishujianquchengshu、rizhenwanshandeshichen,yijianyixiangbudaodegongzuochanshengzailetadeshenshang: sangziyale。duiyigeyichangweizhudelaoshengyanyuanlaijiang,“daocang” shiyigezhimingdechongji。weici,youderenbudebuzhuanye,youderenzehuokaoshuahuayanglaizhechou。liangduorendouganjuezhouxinfangjinhouhuiweimibuzhen,yanchangshenghuoshengjihuocijunshi。danshi,shirendouxiangcuole。zhouxinfangbingbuziyuanziai,ershiyibuxieqi,erbuquqiao,juejichuangchuyitiaoxinlulai。

  tachenzhedichanfalebenshendeleyinqianti,dianmopinpinsilv,zuichu,jueyizaichangqiangshangjiangqiuqiyan,xue“huangzhongdalvzhiyin”。weici,taqishouduizhibuxiegongkaidaqililianqi,zuodaofashengxizuliaoliang,yaowenpenkouwuli。youchugezaitiweijiaosedesiweihaoqingfangmianjinlijinxiu,qiedangdibiaoxianchurenwudexingqingheaizhi。dianmochijiudeyanjiuhemosuo,zhouxinfangbuzhibuzaodao“daocang”dexianding,fanergouchenglecangjingjilie、shenyunchunhoudetedian,dizaolebiaoxinliyideqipaiyishu,rangshirenzanbujuekou。

  shizai,liangduogongzuodalverusi。dangyijiangongzuodashidouganjuebuhaodeshichen,changchangshijiyudaolaideshichen。sangziyale,chenglezhouxinfangdeyigeshangfeng,erconglingwaiyigejiaodulaikan,yeshitadeshangfeng: tanenggouceyankaoshihourenbuzouguodelu,nenggoubuduorusiweidingshizhong,chuangchushuyubenshendeguanghui。

  zaixijuquannei,zhouxinfangdeaigangjingye、dangzhendanrenshichulemingde,tajiqizhengshiwenxueliulan,congzhonghuadianfancebenzhongluozhishengshengbuduandeyingyang,rongyuwutaixijubanyan;taqingliangongdao、aiguoaijia,shenweijingjubanyanyishujia,zhouxinfangyongbenshendetiliweiguguojinxianqili。1937nian,kangrizhandouzhouquanbengfa,zhouxinfangzhudongcanyujiuwanggoudang,tabiaoyande《huiqinerdi》、《wentianxiang》dengxi,dadajifaleguanzhongdeaiguorechen。

  11yueshanghailunwang,zhouxinfangdexibeiriweijinyan。yitian,wangweijiandietouziwusibao(hougengmingwushibao)eranqingzhouxinfangyongfan,xijian,tagaozhizhouxinfang: “ribenhuangzhidianxiaxingjiangdaonanjingdunmubaihou,yaoninfuningweilaobiaoyan。”zhouxinfangquehuifushuo: “wozhoumouzaishanghaiyanxidouzaozhizhi,kuangqienanjingni?”

  wushibaojianzhouxinfangjiubuhecaibujia,jiulingbuxiaduanlailianggeguanzishuo: “zheishiliangjianlipin,zhoulaobankerenxuanyijiandaiguiqu。”zhouxinfangfankaiyikan,yiguanshijintiao,yiguanshixiaoqiangshui。zhouxinfanganranjieguoxiaoqiangshui,gaozhiwushibaoshuo: “qingzhuangaowangzhuxi,zheilipinwoshouxiale,zheixiaoqiangshuihuibulewoqilintongdepinde!”shuoba,tuixihuijia。

  diertian,baogaokandeng《qilintong“fuyan”》dedongjing。wushibaodafaleiting,dangyepaijiandiequzhouzhaibangjiazhouxinfang。buguo,zhouxinfangyizaizhonggonggongkaidanggouzaozhipeixiaanranzhuanyi,jiandiemenpulegekong。danggulizaodaosunhaishi,zhouxinfangzaichoudiyanqianbuweiyaoxie,xieqilinran,biaoxianchulezhuoredeaiguozhiqing。

  zhouxinfangdepingsheng,jiuxiangtadejingju,gudonggandonghaofang,hongweicangjing,youyanggangzhiqidezhuangmei;youxiangtadaijirendeyinxiang,cangjingposhi,huiweiwuxian。


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